- He is best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer, and he is also famous for his use of the heroic couplet.
- He suffred from pott’s disease which was the cause of his hunchback.
- His education suffred because of Test Acts.
- Pope described the countryside around his house in his poem Windsor Forest.
- 1709, Pope’s Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonson’s Poetical Miscellanies.
- This was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711.
- Around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club.
- Also he was friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele and contributed to Addison’s play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator.
- He began translating the Iliad around 1715.
- Together with John Gay’s ‘The Beggar’s Opera‘ and Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travels‘ this first ‘Dunciad’ was part of a concerted propaganda assault against Walpole’s Whig ministry.
- In 1731, Pope published his “Epistle to Burlington“, on the subject of architecture, the first of four poems which would later be grouped under the title Moral Essays.
- The Essay on Man is a philosophical poem, written in heroic couplets and published between 1732 and 1734 . The poem is an attempt to “vindicate the ways of God to Man,” a variation on Milton’s attempt in Paradise Lost to “justify the ways of God to Man”.
- It consists of four epistles that are addressed to Lord Bolingbroke.
- The Imitations of Horace followed (1733–38).
- Pope also added a wholly original poem, An Epistle to Doctor Arbuthnot, as an introduction to the “Imitations”. It reviews his own literary career and includes the famous portraits of Lord Hervey(“Sporus“) and Addison (“Atticus”).
- The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced the “hero”, Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber as “king of dunces”. But the real focus of the revised poem is Walpole .
We all know plants are the humblest gift of mother nature to a human’s existence, but do we know the amazing ways in which plants can help us in our everyday life?
Though we all love fuzzy kittens and pooches as pets in our home. We can still have better and less demanding options with bringing these beautiful plants in our homes as a new category of pets. These are as good for us an any other pet. Silently and persistently adding plants to your surrounding will improve your life in uncountable ways. Watch the vedio and bring some greens of your choice to your about to be nature loving home soon.
- Socrates : father of modern western philosophy. Known for Socratic irony and elenchus. He tutored plato.
- Plato : Plato, soon after meeting Socrates burned all his existing poems and drama and garnered an intrest in philosophy and politics. He tutored Aristotle.
- Aristotle : Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic. He tutored Alexander the great.
- Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
- Like Plato had an Academy for his students, Aristotle’s centre for education was called lyceum.
- For Plato poetry was a medium for instruction only and not for pleasure.
- Ion is a shorter and most famous dialogue in the longer work Dialogues by Plato.
- Aristotle envisages pleasure as the end of poetry.
- Following Plato’s death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism .
- For Aristotle, “all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical” (Metaphysics). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics.
- Aristotle’s major works are Poetics ( deals with art of poetry) and Rhetoric (deals with art of speaking).
- Poetics has 1-4 chapter on Poetry, 5 on comedy and epic, 6-19 on tragedy, and remaining on poetic diction and epic poetry.
- Out of the three unities, unity of time is mentioned casually while unity of place is not mentioned at all in the Poetics.
Latin/ Augastan Era
- Horace : Horace can be regarded as the world’s first autobiographer in his writings, he “tells us far more about himself than any other great poet in antiquity . Wrote 6 books: Epodes, Satires, Odes, carmen secular, Epistles, Ars poetica. Horace believed poetry both delight and instruct.
- In 29 B.C. he published the Epodes, in 23 B.C. the first three book of Odes, and his first book of Epistles in 20 B.C. . Augustus asked Horace in 17 B.C. to write a ceremonial poem celebrating his reign to be read at the Saecular Games.
- Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses(Satires and Epistles) and caustic iambic poetry(Epodes).
- Epistles comprised of 2 books. 1st book has 19 familiar letters and an envoi. 2nd book contains 2 long letters themed function of poetry and use of archaism and neologism.
- Ars poetica is not a treatise on art of Criticism but a long poem with its’s subject as Criticism, devided into Poesis (words used/ subject matter), Poema (poem form/ meter used) and poeta ( poet himself).
- Longinus : On the Sublime is attributed to longinus. According to him greatness of poetry is not in impating pleasure or knowledge but in the sublime.
On the Sublime :
- Written in greek and adressed to Postumius terentianus.
- Recieved attention when published by boileau in 1674.
- 5 principles of sublime are : grandeur of thought, capacity of strong emotions, appropriate. Use of figure of speech, Nobility of diction, dignified and elaborate composition.
- True sublime means it “please all and pleases always“.
She is the author of seven novels, namely Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1863), Felix Holt, the Radical ( 1866), Middlemarch(1871–72) and Daniel Deronda (1876), most of which are set in provincial England and known for their realism and psychological insight.
- Maggie Tulliver – young female protagonist
- Tom Tulliver – Maggie’s brother
- Mrs Bessy Tulliver – Maggie and Tom’s mother
- Mr Tulliver – Maggie and Tom’s father, owner of the Mill
- Philip Wakem – hunchbacked classmate of Tom, and friend/suitor to Maggie
- Stephen Guest – affluent suitor to Maggie
- Silas Marner: a weaver who is betrayed at Lantern Yard by his treacherous friend William Dane, moves away to Raveloe, becomes a miser, and accumulates a small fortune, only to have it stolen by Dunstan Cass. Despite these misfortunes, he finds his faith and virtue by the arrival of young Eppie (daughter of Godfrey Cass).
- Godfrey Cass: eldest son of the local squire, who is being constantly blackmailed by his dissolute brother Dunstan over his secret marriage to Molly. When Molly dies, he feels relief, but in time realizes he must account for his deceit to those he has wronged.
- Eppie (Hephizibah): daughter of Molly and Godfrey, who is cared for by Silas after the death of her mother. Mischievous in her early years, she grows into a radiant and beautiful young girl devoted to her adoptive father.
If there’s a gardner among us he or she will surely be fascinated by this vedio. Same goes for the self proclaimed master chefs.
Contrary to the ordinary belief cranberries don’t actually grow in water. But how do we find them floating over water?? Well let’s fish through the vedio to catch something interesting.
And sure watch till the end to know the perfect recipe to make cranberry sauce this Thanksgiving. Enjoy yourself.
In 8th century bede translated a portion of the gospel of St. John into old English prose.
Wycliffe’s Translation from Latin vulgate during 1384 and later in 1388 ( ascribed more to John purvey)
William Tyndale relied on direct translation of Hebrew and Greek originals. In 1525 his English New Testament was printed at Cologne. Much like modern day Bible.
Miles coverdale printed 1st completely printed English Bible.
The great bible 1539 first authorised version under Henry VIII, it was based on Mathews bible.
Calvinistic Geneva bible also called Breeches bible.
In Elizabethan period came the bishops bible.
The authorised version appeared in 1611. 47 scholars were appointed by James 1.
Simon sinek answer’s the millennial question. Watch the big hit interview that litrally broke the internet.
A major part of inspiration comes from understanding the question itself. Without further ado hear what Sinek has to say about the aforesaid .
Do not forget to like and comment. It’s good to keep it interesting always.
I know I have been writing quite tiring study material for competitive examz from a long long time. Believe me I am as uninterested in this as you are. So for a change I decided to study with a twist of fun in it.
Here, today I have a fistful of riddles from the almighty literaturary classics. Because all studyies and no play makes Jack a dull boy! Don’t be ‘Jack’ fellas.
Enjoy this riddling session and check your knowledge about literature. Do write in comments below how many of your answers match. Here you go…
1. Oedipus Rex: also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC. It is referred to by Aristotle in the Poetics.
Q: “What is the creature that walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three in the evening?”
A: A Man
(who crawls on four legs as an infant, walks on two legs as an adult, and walks with a cane as an elderly person)
2. The Merchant of Venice : is a 16th-century play by William Shakespeare written between 1596 and 1599.
Riddle for the suiters will win one of them a beautiful wife and her dowry. Portia’s father comes up with a riddle to choose from amoung the three caskets.
Q: The golden casket reads, “Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire.” The silver reads, “Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves.” The leaden reads, “Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.”
A: The golden casket contains a skull, and a note warning against judging a book by its cover, and the silver casket represents chasing elusive goals. But the leaden casket contains a note that reads, “You that choose not by the view, chance as fair and choose as true.”
3. Emma : novel authored by Jane Austen, was first published in December 1815. Austen explores the concerns and difficulties of genteel women living in Georgian–Regency England; she also creates a lively comedy of manners among her characters.
Before she began the novel, Austen wrote, “I am going to take a heroine whom no one but myself will much like.”
My first displays the wealth and pomp of kings,
Lords of the earth! their luxury and ease.
Another view of man, my second brings,
Behold him there, the monarch of the seas!
In wife of bath’s tale, one of the Arthur’s knight rapes a beautiful women he witnessed on his journey. As a punishment he was asked a riddle by Queen Genevieve, which if he fails to answer within an year and a day, he must die.
Q: What it is that women most desire ?
A: Sovereignty over her husband.
5. Samson Agonistes:(from Greek “Samson the champion“) is a tragic closet drama by John Milton. The play was included with Paradise Regained and printed on 29 May 1671 by John Starkey. In 1671, the work was printed with a new title page and prefaced his work with a discussion on Greek Tragedy and Aristotle’s Poetics.On the title page, Milton wrote that the piece was a “Dramatic Poem” instead of it being a drama.
Famous lines : “Blind among enemies, O worse than chains”.
Q: Out of the eater, something to eat; out of the strong, something sweet. (Judges 14:14)
A: Bees making a honeycomb inside a lion’s carcass
(If you have read samson agonists you must be aware that Samson had killed the lion.)
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Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and Social critic of the Victorian era.
Dickens’s biographer Claire Tomalin regards him as the greatest creator of character in English fiction after Shakespeare. They possess some of the most memorable whimsical names like Ebenezer Scrooge, Tiny Tim, Jacob Marley, Bob Cratchit, Oliver Twist, The Artful Dodger, Fagin, Bill Sikes, Pip, Miss Havisham, Sydney Carton, Charles Darnay, David Copperfield, Mr. Micawber, Abel Magwitch, Daniel Quilp, Samuel Pickwick, Wackford Squeers, and Uriah Heep.
Many were drawn from real life: Mrs Nickleby is based on his mother, though she didn’t recognise herself in the portrait, just as Mr Micawber is constructed from aspects of his father’s ‘rhetorical exuberance’, Harold Skimpole in Bleak House is based on James Henry Leigh Hunt: his wife’s dwarfish chiropodist recognised herself in Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield. Perhaps Dickens’s impressions on his meeting with Hans Christian Andersen informed the delineation of Uriah Heep.
1. The Pickwick Papers :
The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club was Charles Dickens‘s first novel. He was asked to contribute to the project as an up-and-coming writer after the success of Sketches by Boz, published in 1836. Dickens took over the unsuccessful monthly publication after the original illustrator Robert Seymour had committed suicide.
Background: In May 1827, the Pickwick Club of London, headed by Samuel Pickwick, decides to establish a traveling society in which four members journey about England and make reports on their travels. The four members are Mr. Pickwick, a quixotic Character; Tracy Tupman, a ladies’ man who never makes a conquest; Augustus Snodgrass, a poet who never writes a poem; and Nathaniel Winkle, a sportsman of tremendous ineptitude.
2. Oliver Twist:
Introduction; the 2nd novel of Charles Dickens published in monthly installments of Bentley’s miscellany under psuedonym “boz”. It was published in a serialised form from 1837-39.
Alternative title: The parish boy’s progress.
Originally intended to be part of The mudfog papers.
Most inspiring thing I found on internet today… Call him hottest grandpa or the most determined soul on this planet.
For a moment he held me under his spell. His will power is so captivating to an onlooker .. you must take life lessons from this young man in his 80’s. Because his spirit is still young.