Pollution: Crash Course Ecology by Hank


Wherever we go whatever we do Environment is present and we are always interacting with our environment. But since industrialization and emergence of highly work ethical victorian society, we are encountering environment pollution before a purer form of environment. 

Watch “Pollution: Crash Course Ecology #11” on YouTube

In the vedio hank talks about how from simplest pieces of litter to the more complex endocrine disruptors. We humans have become the sole cause of traping our beautiful planet into clutches of all the different form of pollution. As if land water and air pollutants were not enough for us we went on to causing sound, light and radioactive polution as well. 

This topic is in unpresedented neglect in modern political hands, yet it gained a lot of momentum in recent year. Not just a great topic of our life’s concern, it is hugely important and covered by most of the competetive examz worldwide. Here’s a really nice vedio that will inform you inthe most pleasant and interesting manner. Thanks again to the nerd who made it. He is obviously interesting when speaks.

So hear him now and don’t forget to subscribe to fairycrush. Please like the content and think about our planet in the real time.

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Watch “Wagashi Japan Plus” on YouTube

JAPANESE WAGASHI 

Like every place has its own traditional food Japan too isn’t an exception. May be Japan surpass most cultures in a kind of sweet preparation technique representing the seasons of the nature. 

With such a rich cultural heritage and such closeness towards nature no wonder why Japan is assumed as such a great nation.
You may keep your culture supreme but trust me Japan’s Wagashi cousines will totally blow you away. This amazing vedio very beautifully describes the food art of their nation. It got me droling at the screen. It no dount is the best thing for sweets lovers over internt.

Please like my content and subscribe to my blog if you find it appealing and upto your taste buds. I will be back with lot more amazing vedios .till then enjoy watching it.

A bizzare Fish that lives on land


This is the future of immortality in humans …. You herd it right, this fish can live without food or water for years and still go on to grow like crazy. May be next level of farming fish will occure underground with this fantastic fish that lives on ground. These amazing creatures are lot more than wonderful just by the fact of their existence

Watch “Lung Fish, the fish that lives on land without any food or water” on YouTube
Watch this vedio it’s going to make you wonder how much we have yest to figure out about mother nature. It never stops amazing us.

If you like the article do not forget to like and subscribe. Stay tuned.

Virginia Woolf Documentary/ Works/ Quiz

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) D/O Leslie Stephen is the major force behind feminist movement. She is the key figure of modern literature and an eminint member of the influential Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. She published her first novel titled The Voyage Out in 1915. She established Hogarth Press, a publishing house, with her husband, Leonard Woolf


Her first novel, The Voyage Out, was published in 1915 by her half-brother’s imprint, Gerald Duckworth and Company Ltd. This novel was originally titled Melymbrosia, but Woolf repeatedly changed the draft. 

Jacob’s Room is the third novel by Virginia Woolf. The novel centres, in a very ambiguous way, around the life story of the protagonist Jacob Flanders and is presented almost entirely through the impressions other characters have of Jacob. He does not exist as a concrete reality, but rather as a collection of memories and sensations.

 Mrs Dalloway (1925) centres on the efforts of Clarissa Dalloway, a middle-aged society woman, to organise a party, as her life is paralleled with that of Septimus Warren Smith, a working-class veteran who has returned from the First World War bearing deep psychological scars.

To the Lighthouse (1927) is set on two days ten years apart. The plot centres on the Ramsay family’s anticipation of and reflection upon a visit to a lighthouse and the connected familial tensions. One of the primary themes of the novel is the struggle in the creative process that beset painter Lily Briscoe while she struggles to paint in the midst of the family drama. The novel is also a meditation upon the lives of a nation’s inhabitants in the midst of war, and of the people left behind. It also explores the passage of time, and how women are forced by society to allow men to take emotional strength from them.

Orlando (1928) is one of Virginia Woolf’s lightest novels. A parodic biography of a young nobleman who lives for three centuries without ageing much past thirty (but who does abruptly turn into a woman), the book is in part a portrait of Woolf’s lover Vita Sackville-West. It was meant to console Vita for the loss of her ancestral home, Knole House, though it is also a satirical treatment of Vita and her work. In Orlando, the techniques of historical biographers are being ridiculed; the character of a pompous biographer is being assumed in order for it to be mocked.

A Room of One’s Own, 1929, is an extended essay based on a series of lectures she delivered at Newnham College and Girton College. It employs a fictional narrator and narrative to explore women both as writers of and characters in fiction, the manuscript for the delivery of the series of lectures, titled “Women and Fiction”

The Waves (1931) presents a group of six friends whose reflections, which are closer to recitatives than to interior monologues proper, create a wave-like atmosphere that is more akin to a prose poem than to a plot-centred novel”.

Flush: A Biography (1933) is a part-fiction, part-biography of the cocker spaniel owned by Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The book is written from the dog’s point of view. Woolf was inspired to write this book from the success of the Rudolf Besier’s play The Barretts of Wimpole Street

“Her last work, Between the Acts (1941), sums up and magnifies Woolf’s chief preoccupations: the transformation of life through art, sexual ambivalence, and meditation on the themes of flux of time and life, presented simultaneously as corrosion and rejuvenation—all set in a highly imaginative and symbolic narrative encompassing almost all of English history.

The book describes the mounting, performance, and audience of a play at a festival in a small English village, just before the outbreak of the Second World War.

Virginia Woolf Quiz

1. Woolf’s most popular novel during her lifetime was?

     (The Years)

2. Original title of  The voyage out, for which l Woolf repeatedly changed the draft was ?

     (Melymbrosia)

3. What is the setting in ‘To The Lighthouse’ ?

     (two days – ten years apart in Isle of Skye in Scotland between 1910 and 1920 )

4. Which novel of Woolf is cited as a key example of the literary technique of multiple focalization ? 

      ( To the Lighthouse , 1927)

5. ‘To The Lighthouse’ is devided into 3 parts namely?

      ( The window, Time passes, The lighthouse respectively).

6. In which of her work, the eponymous hero is born as a male nobleman in England during the reign of Elizabeth I. He undergoes a mysterious change of sex at the age of about 30 and lives on for more than 300 years into modern times without ageing perceptibly ? 

    (Orlando 1928)

7. Which poem is published by Orlando centuries after starting it, for which she wins a prize?

    (The Oak Tree)

8. Woolf pioneered in the use of which  narrative device ?

     (stream of consciousness)

9.”Give her a room of her own and five hundred a year, let her speak her mind and leave out half that she now puts in, and she will write a better book one of these days.” These lines occure in which of Woolf’s work ?

     (A Room of One’s Own, 1929)

10. During what conditions in England was woolf writing her novels resulting in related themes of her novels?

      ( During the interwar period)

Literary Criticism: part 3

Romantic

  1. Coleridge
  2. Shelly
  3. Wordsworth
  4. Keats
  • Major critical works of Coleridge are Biographia Literaria and Lectures on Shakespeare and Other Poets. His literary remarks are scattered in The Friend, Table talks, Letters, Aids to reflection, Confession of an Inquiring Spirit, Anima poetae, and Sibylline Leaves.
  •  Key ideas expressed by Coleridge in his criticism are :
  1. Fancy and imagination (primary and secondary) : Fancy is not a creative power at all. It only combines what is perceives into beautiful shapes, but imagination fuse and unify. 
  2. The term suspension of disbelief: a willingness to suspend one’s critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.

  • Lectures on Shakespeare is devoted to practical criticism, whereas Biographia Literaria is a work on literary aesthetics or literary theory. 

  • Shelley as Sidney did, wrote a pamphlet ‘The Defence of Poetry’ in response to Thomas love Peacock’s attack on poetry in his ‘Four ages of Poetry’ (1820) in which peacock devided poetry in four ages Iron, gold, silver and copper (which is the contemporary age).
  • Criticism of Wordsworth consist of : 1. Advertisement to the lyrical ballads (1798), 2. Preface to the lyrical ballads (1800), 3. Preface to the lyrical ballads with an appendix on Poetic diction ( 1802).
  • Poetry for Wordsworth is “the spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions” and the stages of poetic process are 1. recollection, 2. contemplation, 3. renewal of the original emotions and 4. composition.
  • Wordsworth theory of poetic diction suggests it should be “section of language really used by men”. He defends the use of metre.

Victorian

  1. Mathew Arnold
  2. Walter Pater
  • Matthew Arnold’s cronology of critical writing is: phase 1 The Preface to the Poems, On Translating Homer, Essay in Criticism (1st series) phase 2 Culture and Anarchy, Literature and Dogma phase 3 Essay in Criticism (2nd series) . Arnolds second phase of criticism is socio ethical.
  • Arnold’s theory of poetry follows Classicism  and Hellenism. It lays stress on significance of action. He pleads to choose ancient subjects for writing a poem and actions should be such that “please always and please all”. He thinks manner and style can never cover the inferiority of of a subject. Harmony comes from manner and matter both.
  • Function of poetry poetry makes men moral, better and nobler, but it does so not through direct teaching but by appealing to the soul.
  • A critic must “see things as they are”, critic hence is seen as a seer and a missionary who changes the world by learning and handing over the best ideas to others. In this regard Arnold priscribed the Touchstone method . Here he is against historic estimate and personal estimate and suggests to attain the real estimate.
  • Arnold is a Moralist and classicist believes in principle “Art for life’s sake”, Walter Pater is a Romantic Impressionist believes in  “Art for art’s sake”. Pater is associated with Aesthetic movement. In his views a critics duty is to record his own impressions of the work and communicate the pleasure he derives. For him imaginative literature is higher and fatual literature is lower. The critic shouldnot depend on rules but on sensibilities.

Modern

  1. TS Eliot
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literaturein 1948, “for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”.
  • His critical pronouncements are widely scattered in journals and periodicals, now collected in books like ‘On Poetry and Poets’ , ‘To Criticize the Critic’, etc.. his major criticism are ‘Tradition and Individual Talent’, ‘Poetry and Drama’, ‘Function of Criticism’, ‘The English Metaphysical Poets’, and ‘The Frontiers of Criticism’.
  • He is largely known for revival of intrest in Metaphysical Poetry of 17th century.
  • The phrase Objective correlative  was first use by Eliot in his essay on Hamlet. Explained with the example of lady Macbeth agony shown by the ‘sleep walking sceen’ where the author conveys her emotional state not through direct discription of her feelings but through her actions.
  • In his ‘Essay on Metaphysical Poets’ Eliot advocates Unification of sensibility, found in works of Metaphysical Poets (combining thought and feelings) which is essential for good poetry, also dissociation of sensibility results in bad poetry. 
  • He is of the openion that good works of art make a tradition which keeps on living begining right from Homer. So only good and essential must be followed. In his Essay ‘Tradition and …’ published in ‘After Strange Gods’ he says “poetry is not turning loose of emotions, but an escape from emotions, it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality” meaning poet must depersonalise his emotions. Hereon it follows that there is no relationship between poet’s personality and the poem. A poet is great because he has a mind in which varied feelings are at liberty to enter, into new combinations.

    Literary criticism: timeline/ shortnotes/ part 2

    Renaissance

    1. Sidney : His works include Astrophel and StellaThe Defence of Poesy(also known as The Defence of Poetry or An Apology for Poetry), and The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia.
    2. Ben Jonson : He popularised the comedy of humours. He is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour (1598) Volpone, or The Fox (1606) , The Alchemist(1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) and for his lyric poetry. He was first in the line of poet critics like Dryden, Wordsworth, Arnold, T.S. Eliot. He translated ( in verse ) Horace’s Ars poetica. Most of his Criticism is embodied in Timber or Discoveries made upon man and matter

    • In the last quarter of 16th century, the hostility of puritans posed a challenge to the status of poetry. Best puritan attack is by Stephen Gosson in “School of Abuse”. Sidney countered this attack with his apology for poetry/ poesy also known as defence of poetry in 1585.
    • According to Sidney poetry “is  an art of imitation… To speak metaphorically, a speaking picture with this end- to teach and delight”.
    • The first mention of the unities of time and place in England is found in Defence of poesy. Although Ben leniently kept unity of time and action, he often disregarded unity of place even in his own plays.

    • Ben Jonson took part in Poetomachia.
    • He followed all the 3 unities.

     Tudor trio : JOHN CHEKE, ROGER ASCHAM AND THOMAS WILSON


      Restoration

      1. John Dryden : he was made England’s first Poet Laureate in 1668. He founded  modern prose style.Walter Scott called him “Glorious john” and Dr. Jonson called him “Father of English Criticism”.

      • His critical works are : essay on satire, essay on heroic tragedy, Essay on fables and Essay on Dramatic poesy.
      • Plato said poetry is to instruct, Aristotle to delight, Horace to do both and Longinus to transport, for Dryden poetry is to delight and transport. 
      • Dryden defends tragic comedy. Although Dryden followed Aristotle to depths and breadths, he states if ancients knew about tragic comedy Aristotle might have revised his rules.
      • Dryden is the master of liberal criticism. He did not stick strictly to the 3 unities. He supported English drama over French for not following the unities.
      • In the Essay on Drammatic poesy 4 men argue: 1. Crites ( the classicist) argued in favour of classical models over modern drama. 2. Eugenius ( the modernist) argued against crites’ stand. 3. Lisideus ( the french) supportef French drama over English. 4. Neander ( the new man) argued against French drama.

      Neo classical

      1. Alexander pope : He is best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer, and he is also famous for his use of the heroic couplet.
      2. Dr. Samuel Johnson : he is pioneer in the field of Biographical Criticism. His fame as a biographer rests on his ‘lives of the poets’

      • Popes chief works in criticism are 1. Essay on Criticism, 2. Immitations of the epistle of Horace to Augustus, 3. Letters, 4. Preface to Shakespeare’s plays. 
      •  An Essay on Criticism: The poem was said to be a response to an ongoing debate on the question of whether poetry should be natural, or written according to predetermined artificial rules inherited from the classical past. Composed in heroic couplets (pairs of adjacent rhyming lines of iambic pentameter) and written in the Horatian mode of satire.
      • He believes that the “Imitation of the ancients” is the ultimate standard for taste. Pope also says, “True ease in writing comes from art, not chance, / As those move easiest who have learned to dance” meaning poets are made, not born.
      • He advocates use of Noble language. For him a critic is a better judge, he is born with this gift and he has to be well versed in the rules of ancients.
      • The phrase “fools rush in where angels fear to tread” from Part III of Essay on Criticism has become part of the popular lexicon and is used by E.M. Forster in his 1905 Novel’s title.
      • About Shakespeare, Pope remarks ” Shakespeare kept bad company that he wrote to please the populace.



      • Major works of Dr. Samuel Johnson are: preface to dictionary of English language, Preface to Shakespeare, Lives of the poets, Essays contributed to Rambler ( a periodical founded and edited by himself).
      • Poetry should please but it should have truth, epic is the highest form of poetry. Johnson disliked Blank verse ( verse only to the eye).
      • Unity of time and place are not kept by Johnson only unity of action was given some weight.
      • He defends tragic comedy and so defends Shakespeare for being true to nature. As in real life good bad, joy sorrow exist simultaneously so does tragedy and comedy in Shakespearean dramas.

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      Also comment below and dont forget to like literary Criticism Timeline.

        Alexander pope: Poet critic of 18th century.

        • He is best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer, and he is also famous for his use of the heroic couplet.
        • He suffred from pott’s disease which was the cause of his hunchback.
        •  His education suffred because of  Test Acts
        • Pope described the countryside around his house in his poem Windsor Forest.
        • 1709, Pope’s Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonson’s Poetical Miscellanies
        • This was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711.
        • Around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers John GayJonathan SwiftThomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club.
        •  Also he was friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele and contributed to Addison’s play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator.
        •   He began  translating the Iliad  around 1715.
        • Together with John Gay’s ‘The Beggar’s Opera‘ and Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travels‘ this first ‘Dunciad’ was part of a concerted propaganda assault against Walpole’s Whig ministry. 
        • In 1731, Pope published his “Epistle to Burlington“, on the subject of architecture, the first of four poems which would later be grouped under the title Moral Essays
        • The Essay on Man is a philosophical poem, written in heroic couplets and published between 1732 and 1734 . The poem is an attempt to “vindicate the ways of God to Man,” a variation on Milton’s attempt in Paradise Lost to “justify the ways of God to Man”. 
        • It consists of four epistles that are addressed to Lord Bolingbroke
        • The Imitations of Horace followed (1733–38).
        •  Pope also added a wholly original poem, An Epistle to Doctor Arbuthnot, as an introduction to the “Imitations”. It reviews his own literary career and includes the famous portraits of Lord Hervey(“Sporus“) and Addison (“Atticus”).
        •  The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced the “hero”, Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber as “king of dunces”. But the real focus of the revised poem is Walpole .

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        Literary Criticism Timeline: overview/ shortnotes Part 1

        Greece

        1. Socrates : father of modern western philosophy. Known for Socratic irony and elenchus. He tutored plato.
        2. Plato : Plato, soon after meeting Socrates burned all his existing poems and drama and garnered an intrest in philosophy and politics. He tutored Aristotle.
        3. Aristotle : Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic. He tutored Alexander the great. 
        • Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
        • Like Plato had an Academy for his students, Aristotle’s centre for education was called lyceum.
        • For Plato poetry was a medium for instruction only and not for pleasure.
        • Ion is a shorter and most famous dialogue in the longer work Dialogues  by Plato.
        •  Aristotle envisages pleasure as the end of poetry.
        • Following Plato’s death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism .
        •  For Aristotle, “all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical” (Metaphysics). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics.
        • Aristotle’s major works are Poetics ( deals with art of poetry) and Rhetoric (deals with art of speaking).
        • Poetics has 1-4 chapter on Poetry, 5 on comedy and epic, 6-19 on tragedy, and remaining on poetic diction and epic poetry.
        • Out of the three unities, unity of time is mentioned casually while unity of place is not mentioned at all in the Poetics.
        •  

          Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind’s advantages over animals. While

           it is believed that Aristotle’s Poetics comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, thought, spectacle, and lyric poetry. The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.

        Latin/ Augastan Era

        1. Horace : Horace can be regarded as the world’s first autobiographer in his writings, he “tells us far more about himself than any other great poet in antiquity . Wrote 6 books: Epodes, Satires, Odes, carmen secular, Epistles, Ars poetica. Horace believed poetry both delight and instruct.
        • In 29 B.C. he published the Epodes, in 23 B.C. the first three book of Odes, and his first book of Epistles in 20 B.C. . Augustus asked Horace in 17 B.C. to write a ceremonial poem celebrating his reign to be read at the Saecular Games.
        • Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses(Satires and Epistles) and caustic iambic poetry(Epodes). 
        • Epistles comprised of 2 books. 1st book has 19 familiar letters and an envoi. 2nd book contains  2 long letters themed function of poetry and use of archaism and neologism.
        • Ars poetica is not a treatise on art of Criticism but a long poem with its’s subject as Criticism, devided into Poesis (words used/ subject matter), Poema (poem form/ meter used) and poeta ( poet himself).

        Graco Roman

        1. Longinus : On the Sublime is attributed to longinus. According to him greatness of poetry is not in impating pleasure or knowledge but in the sublime.

        On the Sublime : 

        • Written in greek  and adressed to  Postumius terentianus.
        • Recieved attention when published by boileau in 1674.
        • 5 principles of sublime are : grandeur of thought, capacity of strong emotions, appropriate. Use of figure of speech, Nobility of diction, dignified and elaborate composition.
        • True sublime means it “please all and pleases always“.